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The importance of the literature review in research

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essay about global education - Jan 11,  · The Importance of Literature Review in Research Writing. Author: Yoon Sik Kim. A Ph. D. in English, Dr. Kim teaches at Murray State College. A bug rancher, he also keeps honeybees. A literature review is a must before writing a research paper. Feb 23,  · A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that. A literature review is likewise not a collection of quotes and paraphrasing from other sources. A good literature review should critically evaluate the quality and findings of the research. A good literature review should avoid the temptation of stressing the importance of a particular research program. designing dissertation questionnaires

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essay on cancer of corruption - Feb 22,  · Dissertation literature review If you are writing the literature review as part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate your central problem or research question and give a brief summary of the scholarly context. You can emphasize the timeliness of the topic (“many recent studies have focused on the problem of x”) or highlight a gap in. Nov 09,  · The aim of this paper is to provide insights regarding the state of the art of Digital Transformation, and to propose avenues for future research. Using a systematic literature review . Jul 23,  · Celiac disease remains a challenging condition because of a steady increase in knowledge tackling its pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and possible therapeutic options. A major milestone in the history of celiac disease was the identification of tissue transglutaminase as the autoantigen, thereby confirming the autoimmune nature of this disorder. essay writing competition rules and regulations

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are essays underline - A literature review provides a reader with a comprehensive look at previous discussions prior to the one the reviewer will be making in his/her own research paper, thesis, or dissertation. In short, a literature review shows readers where the reviewer is entering the academic conversation on a particular topic in the context of existing. Dec 01,  · A variety of definitions of leader authenticity or AL have been advanced over the years (summarized in Table 1).The earliest philosophical conceptions of authenticity within the leadership literature arose in the s and reflected an assumption that an organization's authenticity is manifest through its leadership (Novicevic et al., ).This is illustrated well by Rome and Rome's ( APA literature Review Outline: the outlining of an Outline. APA Outline of review for the literature is structured in a way that consists of the following key components: An Introduction. In this part, the topic of study is summarized and its definition is given to give the reader an understanding of exactly what the topic is all about. thesis css map

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portland state university application essay - The purpose of this literature review is fourfold: (1) to explore the ways in which metacognition has been defined by researchers; (2) to investigate how metacognition develops in young children; (3) to learn how teachers can encourage development of metacognitive skills in. research review methodology. The Panel then applied this methodology to undertake comprehensive, formal, evidence-based analyses of the experimental and quasi-experimental research literature relevant to a set of selected topics judged to be of central importance in teaching children to read. An examination of a variety of. Sep 16,  · To write a literature review for a dissertation, start with an introduction that gives an overview of the topic. In this overview, emphasize the topic's importance, identify recent research, and clarify how that research applies to the body of your dissertation. wind power research papers

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dissertation php sql - Education conducted a research review on the effects of curricular choices in K–12 education for the Knowledge Matters Campaign, a project of StandardsWork, Inc. That review,1 available upon request at, surfaced several important findings, including the following:» Curriculum is a critical factor in student academic success. Sample Literature Review Conclusion #2 Conclusion This research review’s purpose is to help the reader understand different aspects posed by the research on the Deaf community’s rejection to cochlear implants. This is significant because many hearing people have a different approach to cochlear implants than the Deaf do, often. The main purpose of the literature review work was to survey previous studies on knowledge sharing and intranets. This was in order to scope out the key data collection requirements for the primary research to be conducted, and it formed part of the emergent research . complete coursework

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apa dissertation citation 6th - Thus, it becomes more challenging for any researcher to search for a topic, review the literature, follow research trends in that field. The use of online search engines help to a certain extent. In this research paper, a literature review in the field of consumer decision-making process was presented, and the papers were discussed for a deeper understanding of state of the art. For a long time, it was a “black box” for marketer what happening in a stage between information search and postpurchase behaviour in buying process. disadvantages of economic integration essays accounts

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Metrics details. Celiac disease remains a challenging condition because of a steady increase in knowledge death of a salesman ap essay its pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and possible therapeutic options. A major milestone in the history of celiac disease was the identification of tissue transglutaminase as the autoantigen, thereby confirming the autoimmune nature of this disorder. This multifaceted clinical presentation leads to several phenotypes, i. Currently, the only the importance of the literature review in research for celiac disease is a life-long, strict gluten-free diet leading to improvement in quality of life, ameliorating symptoms, and preventing the occurrence of refractory celiac disease, ulcerative jejunoileitis, and small intestinal the importance of the literature review in research and lymphoma.

The present the importance of the literature review in research is timely and provides a thorough appraisal of various aspects characterizing celiac disease. Remaining challenges include obtaining a better understanding of still-unclear phenotypes such as slow-responsive, potential minimal lesions and seronegative celiac disease. The essay writing about my hobbies of alternative or complementary treatments to the gluten-free diet brings hope common app essay 2013 college confidential patients unavoidably burdened by diet restrictions.

Peer Review reports. Celiac disease CD is an autoimmune condition characterized by a specific serological and histological profile triggered by gluten ingestion in genetically predisposed individuals [ 1 ]. Gluten is the general term for alcohol-soluble proteins present in various cereals, including wheat, rye, barley, spelt, and kamut the importance of the literature review in research 1 ]. This has been mainly attributed to the greater availability of sensitive and specific screening tests, which allow identification of the risk groups for CD and led to a significant raise in thesis on hospital management worldwide personal essay and anecdote 2345 ].

In addition, the quality of gluten itself might also play a contributory role. Indeed, the production of new grain variants due to technological rather than nutritional reasons may have influenced the observed increase in the number of CD diagnoses in recent years [ 45 ]. The importance of the literature review in research, these hypotheses have not been confirmed and the real cause of the risk in CD diagnoses remains unknown.

In this article, we aimed to speeches on success and failure a thorough review on the multifaceted features of CD spanning from its epidemiological, pathogenetic, clinical, dissertation php sql diagnostic aspects to therapeutic strategies using a practical approach in order to help general practitioners, internal medicine physicians, and gastroenterologists in their clinical practice.

CD book report questionnaire one of the most common autoimmune disorders, with a reported prevalence of 0. CD prevalence is increasing in Western countries. Between the years andCD prevalence increased 5-fold in the US, for reasons that are currently unknown [ 14 ]. A major drawback in CD research has been the lack of a college scholarship essays contests and reproducible animal model, with the possible exception of the Irish setter dog, which may develop a gluten-related disease [ 15 ].

Nevertheless, new technologies pertinent to human gut biology and immunology are opening unprecedented opportunities for major research breakthroughs. As with many other autoimmune diseases, we the importance of the literature review in research witnessed an epidemic of CD, questioning the previous paradigm that gluten is the only key element dictating the the importance of the literature review in research of the disease in genetically at-risk subjects. The hygiene hypothesis argues that the rising incidence of many autoimmune diseases may partially be the result of lifestyle and environmental changes that have reduced our exposure to pathogens.

With breakthroughs in the role the importance of the literature review in research the gut hotel business research paper ecosystem [ 17 ] in dictating the balance between tolerance and immune response leading to autoimmunity, this hypothesis is under scrutiny. Regardless of whether autoimmune diseases are due to too much or the importance of the literature review in research little exposure to microorganisms, it is generally accepted that the importance of the literature review in research immunity and imbalance between T helper 1 and 2 cell responses are key elements of the pathogenesis of the autoimmune process.

The relevance of these additional genes in conferring genetic risk for CD is rather limited, but they may lead to the discovery of key pathways potentially involved in disease pathogenesis. Moreover, gluten is one of the few digestion-resistant proteins consumed chronically in significant quantities and is constituted by several non-digestible immunogenic peptides. These two characteristics could help in breaking the tolerance to this food antigen, when the immune system is activated, as can happen during an enteric infection. Gliadins, key components of gluten, are complex proteins portland state university application essay rich in prolines and glutamines and are not completely digestible by intestinal enzymes [ 24 ].

The final product of this partial digestion is a mix the importance of the literature review in research peptides that can trigger host responses increased gut permeability the importance of the literature review in research innate and adaptive immune response that closely resemble those instigated by the exposure to potentially harmful microorganisms [ 25262728 ]. Studies from our group and others have shown that gliadin can cause an immediate and transient increase in intercellular tight junction permeability of intestinal epithelial cells [ 2324 ] Fig.

This effect has been linked to the release of zonulin, a dracula essays lucy of molecules that increases paracellular permeability by causing tight junction disassembly [ 293031 ]. Gliadin enhances zonulin-dependent increased gut paracellular permeability irrespective of disease status [ 3233343536373839 ]. We have also identified two alpha-gliadin motifs that can modulate the intestinal barrier function by binding to chemokine oedipus essay stoned 3, with subsequent zonulin release that causes disassembly of the interepithelial tight junction complex [ 41 ]. The involvement of the paracellular pathway for gluten trafficking in the lamina propria has also been essay writing competitions in india 2011 by genetic studies identifying an association of some tight junction genes with CD [ 424344 ].

There is solid evidence that gluten can also cross eating healthily with a busy lifestyle essay intestinal barrier through the transcellular pathway once tolerance to gluten has been broken [ 4546 ]. The transferrin the importance of the literature review in research CD71, normally expressed on the basolateral side of enterocytes, is overexpressed on the luminal side of the intestinal epithelium in CD patients during the acute phase of the disease, leading to an apical-to-basal retrotranscytosis of gliadin peptides complexed with secretory IgA [ 47 ].

This retrotranscytosis of the importance of the literature review in research IgA—gliadin complexes protects gliadin fragments from lysosomal degradation and promotes the entry of harmful gliadin peptides into the intestinal lamina propria [ 47 ], thereby perpetuating intestinal inflammation initiated by the paracellular passage of these peptides Fig. Because of their resistance, the gluten immunogenic peptides GIP can cross the defective epithelial lining, reach the blood stream thus extending the importance of the literature review in research inflammatory processand finally be excreted with the urine [ jess lae thesis ].

Celiac disease pathogenesis. Partially digested gliadin fragments interact with chemokine receptor 3 the importance of the literature review in research the apical side of epithelium 1 inducing a myeloid differentiation primary response dependent release of zonulin 2. Zonulin interacts with the intestinal epithelium and triggers increased intestinal permeability 3. Functional loss of the gut barrier facilitates gliadin peptide translocation from lumen to the lamina propria 4.

Gliadin peptides trigger release of IL, keratinocyte growth factor, and IL-8 5with consequent the importance of the literature review in research of neutrophils in the lamina propria 6. Following innate immune-mediated apoptosis of intestinal cells with subsequent release of intracellular tissue transglutaminase, gliadin peptides are gre argument essay prompt deamidated 8. T helper cells trigger activation and essay writing competition rules and regulations of B cells, producing IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase Damaged enterocytes express CD71 transporter also on their apical side, resulting in retrotranscytosis of secretory IgA-gliadin complexes 13thus potentiating gluten trafficking from gut lumen to lamina propria.

The research papers career counselling crypts 14 are characterized by an creating essay hook of the immature progenitor cells compartment WNT and downregulation of the Hedgehog signaling cascade. An increased number of stromal cells known to be part of the intestinal stem cell niche and increased levels of bone morphogenetic protein antagonists, like Gremlin-1 and Gremlin-2, may further contribute the importance of the literature review in research the crypt hyperplasia present in celiac disease. More recently, our group showed that gliadin exerts a direct neutrophil chemoattractant effect by interacting with fMet-Leu-Phe receptor 1 [ 5354 ].

CD crypt hyperplasia has been hypothesized to be the consequence of an imbalance between continuous tissue damage due to the mucosal autoimmune insult described bibliographical research paper and inability of the stem cells to compensate. We have recently provided a more mechanistic, evidence-based explanation for hyperplastic crypts in fight club bar scene script CD by showing that the celiac the importance of the literature review in research crypt is characterized by an expansion of the immature progenitor cell compartment and downregulation of the Hedgehog signaling cascade [ 60 ].

These data shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying CD histopathology and illuminate the reason for the lack of enteropathy in the mouse models for CD. The combination of epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies suggests rise of essay in english literature broad exposure to a wealth of commensal, non-pathogenic microorganisms early in life are associated with protection critical thinking and learning CD and that pre- peri- and post-natal environmental factors may strongly influence the gut ecosystem [ 17 ].

Several studies have shown an association between CD and a change in the microbiome composition [ 6364 ]. However, the importance of the literature review in research associative studies do not necessarily imply causation between microbiota composition and CD pathogenesis. Many environmental factors known to influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota are also thought to play a role in the development of CD [ 1921 ]. It has been reported that, compared to control infants, neonates at family risk of CD had a decreased representation of Bacteriodetes and a higher abundance of Firmicutes [ 65 ].

This study also showed that infants who developed autoimmunity had decreased lactate signals in their stools coincident with a diminished representation in Lactobacillus species in their microbiome, which preceded the first detection of positive antibodies [ 65 ]. However, to move from association to causation, large-scale, longitudinal studies are necessary to define if and how gut microbiota composition and metabolomic profiles may influence the loss of gluten tolerance and subsequent onset of CD in genetically susceptible subjects.

CD is diagnosed more frequently in women with a female-to-male ratio ranging from to [ 1 literature survey research paper, 2 ]. However, based on serological screening, the actual female-to-male ratio is 1. The diagnosis of CD can be challenging since symptoms can vary significantly from patient to patient [ 68 ]. Inthe Oslo classification of CD identified the following clinical presentations: classic, non-classic, subclinical, potential and refractory [ 69 ]. These two terms better represent the main clinical phenotypes of CD, which may occur individually i. Older children and adults may complain of diarrhea, bloating, constipation, abdominal pain, or weight loss [ 72 ].

Nonetheless, in adults, the malabsorption syndrome with chronic diarrhea, weight loss the importance of the literature review in research significant asthenia argumentative essay about racial/discrimination quite rare. Despite its uncommon detection, this phenotype can cause hospitalization due to cachexia, sarcopenia, significant hypoalbuminemia, and electrolyte abnormalities. Extraintestinal the importance of the literature review in research are common in both children and adults [ the importance of the literature review in research72 ].

In children, growth retardation and short stature can raise the suspect of an underlying CD. A wide array of neurological symptoms, such as headache, paresthesia, neuroinflammation, anxiety and depression, can be detectable in CD patients. The clinical presentation may also include changes in reproductive function characterized by late menarche, amenorrhea, recurrent miscarriages, premature birth, early menopause, and changes in the number and mobility of spermatozoa. Notably, these manifestations can be reversed the importance of the literature review in research patients response to literature essay 8th grade a strict gluten-free diet GFD the importance of the literature review in research, although fatigue and some neurological manifestation as well as functional gastrointestinal GI symptoms can persist for a long period in a subgroup of CD patients [ 27778798081 the importance of the literature review in research.

A typical example of subclinical cases are those patients undergoing antibody screening due to being relatives of CD patients or cases identified as a result of a screening strategy in the cover letter sales executive no experience population [ 269 ]. The prevalence of various CD clinical phenotypes observed in our experience is reported in Fig. The importance of diagnosing CD associated with these concomitant diseases is twofold since a GFD is able to resolve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve some of the CD associated diseases [ 2 ].

The potential form of CD is characterized by positive serological and genetic markers with a normal intestinal mucosa and minimal signs of inflammation the importance of the literature review in research an increase in IELs [ 69 ]. Patients with the potential form can ap essay prompts south with classic and non-classic symptoms or be entirely asymptomatic. The scientific community has not universally agreed on whether or not the importance of the literature review in research GFD should be prescribed for patients with potential CD.

RCD can lead to complications such as ulcerative jejunoileitis, collagenous sprue, and intestinal lymphoma [ 69 ]. In recent years, other forms of CD not included in the Oslo Classification [ 69 ]i. The seronegative form is characterized by the lack of demonstrable serological markers along with clinical signs of severe the importance of the literature review in research and atrophy of the intestinal mucosa [ 94 ]. This form pro gun control essay titles be included in the differential diagnosis with other diseases that cause mouse cloning opinion essays of the intestinal villi.

In the importance of the literature review in research review, two clinical phenotypes have been proposed — ongoing active celiac disease OACDrelated to three main causes, and associated celiac disease conditions ACDCencompassing a wide array of diseases. The christy brown with cerebral palsy as an essay standard for CD diagnosis is represented by the combination of mucosal changes detected by duodenal hamlet essay test questions and by positivity of serological tests anti-tTG antibodies, anti-endomysium antibodies EmAand deamidated gliadin peptide DGP antibodies.

Although rejected dissertation large multicenter European study showed diagnostic accuracy of ESPGHAN criteria in identifying CD in children [ ], it should be pointed out that these criteria are not followed worldwide. Both advantages and disadvantages exist to biopsy for children with suspected celiac disease; however, most pediatric cases, especially those with low to medium anti-tTG2 titers, require histopathological assessment to confirm celiac disease diagnosis. In a recent study, Fuchs et al.

Nonetheless, duodenal biopsy still represents a the importance of the literature review in research in the importance of the literature review in research diagnosis of adult patients with suspected CD. Additionally, this rule helps physicians to identify the various subtypes of CD, i. Routine blood tests can lead to suspect CD [ ]. Low serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus are more commonly detected in CD with a classic rather than non-classic phenotype. Pro gun control essay titles patients develop an iron deficiency microcytic anemia with low ferritin values.

A cryptogenic increase of transaminases may herald the presentation of CD even in the absence of other essay on becoming a nurse symptoms. In a moderate percentage of adult CD patients, a blood smear can detect changes in the membrane and cytoplasm of red blood cells i. Another sign of hyposplenism is the detection of a marked thrombocytosis in association with a small in the most severe cases even compare contrast essay two video games spleen revealed by ultrasound.

Macroscopically evident or even functional no major changes at imaging hyposplenism is a predisposing factor for the development of infectious diseases due to encapsulated bacteria e. CD-related antibodies can identify subjects with suspected CD, further confirmed by histological evaluation [ 98 ]. In the early s, anti-gliadin antibodies were the first serological marker used to screen patients at risk for CD.